humanitarians, bureaucratic interference, environmental challenges and the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic culminated in widespread access challenges and hindered humanitarian workers’ ability to reach vulnerable populations and provide humanitarian assistance and services. Thirteen of 74 districts in Somalia, primarily centered around Galmudug, Hirshabelle, Southwest and Jubaland States, and with a population of 895,536, remained inaccessible in 2020. The Access Working Group (AWG) recorded 255 access incidents that hindered humanitarian operations with the highest number of incidents occurring in Southwest State (60), Jubaland (42) and Hirshabelle (33). These three states alone accounted for 53 per cent of all recorded incidents. The most common constraint recorded across Somalia was the restriction of movement on humanitarian supplies and personnel. Illegal taxation, roadblocks, checkpoints imposed by non-state armed groups, ongoing hostilities amongst armed actors, military operations, improvised explosive device attacks and the broader and unpredictable security situation restricted or prevented both humanitarian and commercial transport, which led to shortages of supplies and increases in the price of commodities.