* Most households reported a single source of income, and the lack of options for income generation has exacerbated the economic instability. A majority of households experienced a decline in their primary source of income. Awdal, Bari, Lower Jubba, Sanaag, Sool and Waqooyi Galbeed were hit the hardest.
* The majority of cropping households relied on rain-fed irrigation and due to the ongoing drought, experienced a decrease in both cultivated area and harvest. The regions that experienced the most major decreases in harvest were Awdal, Lower Jubba, Middle Jubba, Middle Shabelle, Mudug, Nugaal, Sool and Waqooyi Galbeed.
* All regions experienced a decrease in herd size over the last year, associated with livestock mortality and distress sales attributed to drought, pests or diseases.
* It is recommended that the national and regional early warning systems on climate and livestock body conditions are used, and government ministries and development partners are worked with to implement offtake programmes and destocking during the early warning of impending drought period.